21 Mar 2012 @ 9:26 AM 

Thorium-232 In Clay Soil Cannot Get Into Body Tissues
Repost comment from Dato’ Dr Looi Hoong Wah

Dear NK Khoo,

Thorium-232 In Clay Soil Cannot Get Into Body Tissues

1. Ingestion

Thorium-232 is strongly bound (adsorbed) by soil especially clay soil. The Thorium in the clay particles is about 500,000 % higher than in the water between the clay particles.
So, it cannot be leached out by water and pollute the rivers.
When ingested there is insignificant absorption of the Thorium because of this strong bond between the clay particles and the Thorium. Practically all the Thorium will be excreted with the clay.

2. Inhalation

Because of its mass, Thorium-232 particles are very heavy and has great difficulty to get airborne.

Normally these particles get airborne only when they are very small and the only ones that can get deep into the lungs are those which are about 1 to 2 micron in diameter.

These fine particles are only found in the mines and experimental nuclear plants where powerful machines are used or where there is combustion. The chance of inhaling 1 to 2 micron sized thorium particles in the Kuantan air is practically non-existent.

All lung disorders are associated with prolonged exposure in the mines or Thoriun refining plants where the above conditions are present.

3. External Threat

Thorium-232 produces only alpha rays (gamma rays from daughter isotopes are insignificant) which cannot pass through even a thin piece of paper or the surface of the skin.
There is therefore no external threat.

4. Unnatural Routes of Entry

The only way Thorium can gain entry into the body is by injection. In the past where huge doses of 25cc to 50 cc of a 25% solution of Thorium dioxide (Thorotrast) was injected into the vein for contrast radiological studies, a small number of patients may develop cancers 20 to 30 years later. Even with these high unnatural doses, there was no acute toxicity.

In the south of the state of Kerala in India the soil contains as much as 4,000 ppm (parts of Thorium per million). Studies have shown that there is little or no accumulation of Thorium-232 in the inhabitants,
The Lynas waste contains only 1,650 ppm.

So if Thorium cannot enter the body in significant amounts by ingestion or inhalation and alpha rays do not pose an external threat, what’s all the big fuss about the Lynas rare earth plant ?

Dato’ Dr Looi Hoong Wah
FAMM, Mb.,ChB(Manchester), MRCS(England), LRCP(London), MRCP(UK)


Dear NK Khoo,

Recently I received a few comments with regards to the various letters that I wrote about Thorium-232.

As expected, most of them are rather childish, infantile and devoid of any intellectual content and as such do not merit any response from me.

However, there are a few genuine statements which need further explanation.

One reader stated that although Thorium-232 may not be dangerous, all their “daughter” isotopes have very short half-lives like Radon-220 and these are highly radioactive, so how could we say that Thorium-232 is not dangerous.

Well, the reason is obvious. But I find great difficulty in explaining to a layman the reason why when an element with an extremely long half-life that decays into isotopes with very short half-life, there is minimal accumulation of the short half-life isotopes and as such do not build up into a large enough quantity to pose any significant hazard.

I will try to explain by this simple analogy.

If there are 2 million people waiting outside a stadium and 1 million people managed to get into the stadium after 14,000,000,000 years (half-life of Thorium-232), it means that you will see only 1 person getting into the stadium every 14,000 years.

But once in the stadium the half-life of the new person (half-life of Radon-220 from the Thorium-232 decay chain is only 55 seconds) is so short when compared with those outside (Thorium-232) that he has left the stadium almost immediately. Getting in is extremely slow but getting out is extremely fast!

Since only 1 person gets into the stadium every 14,000 years, it you look into the stadium you will see it as empty most of the time!

It is just like trying to fill up a bucket by a slow, slow drop by drop drip and the bucket has a big hole at the bottom. If you look into the bucket you will see practically little or no water in it!

Since the Lynas waste product has only 6 Bq/gm of radioactivity, the chance of detecting any significant amount of radon gas is pretty slim indeed.

Another query is the inhalation of Thorium dust.

We must remember that Thorium-232 is heavier than the so called non-radioactive Lead-208 (actually Lead-208 does decay, but since it has an even longer half-life of 19 million billion years, the radioactivity is insignificant).

Because of its mass, Thorium-232 particles are very heavy and has great difficulty to get airborne.

Normally these particles get airborne only when they are very small and the only ones that can get deep into the lungs are those which are about 1 micron in diameter.

These fine particles are only found in the mines and experimental nuclear plants where there powerful machines are used. The chance of inhaling 1 micron sized thorium particles in the Kuantan air is practically non-existent.

What we need to worry about is the inhalation of other types of far more dangerous dust particles like lead in the car exhaust fumes, silica (causing silicosis) in granite quarries, and other pneumoconiosis like abestosis and severe chronic bronchitis from coal mining.

All these lung disorders are associated with prolonged exposure in the mines.

To be very frank, I have not seen or heard or found in the scientific literature of any case of proven lung disease, death or for that matter, any disease in humans caused by Thorium-232.

Thorium-232 has not been definitely proven to have caused a single human death in the world since the beginning of recorded history!

And this should be compared with about 15,000 deaths caused by humans (murders) every year in the USA.

Worldwide, about 2 to 3 million deaths are caused by Malaria every year.

So Mosquitoes in the air is far, far more dangerous than Thorium-232 in the air!


Dear NK Khoo,

I have a special interest in nuclear medicine in the last 40 years or so. And I find that what you have said in your blog is essentially correct and honest.

It is rather painful to see how so many well educated Malaysians are being misled by irresponsible people with obvious ulterior motives.

Even the president of CAP thought that since Thorium-40 (nkkhoo says it should be -232) has a long half-life, it is extremely dangerous when the reverse is true.

Here are some more facts with regards to the Lynas controversy:

The potassium tablets that your doctor gives you for high blood pressure is highly radioactive with a radioactivity of 32 Bq/gm and we need about 2 to 3 grams of potassium per day to stay alive.

The radioactivity comes from potassium-40. This is more than 500% the radioactivity of the Lynas waste which contains only 6 Bq/gm mainly from Thorium-232.

All the potassium that we eat everyday in our food contains potassium-40 and the normal dietary potassium would give a total of about 80 Bq per day.

The so-called sodium free salt recommended by health experts to combat high blood pressure is nothing more than just highly radioactive potassium salt! Even a lot of doctors do not know this!

Thorium-232 decay produces only alpha particles which can be stopped by a piece of thin paper and cannot penetrate even the outer layer of the human skin, whereas potassium-40 in our diet produces the highly dangerous gamma and beta rays from all the 3 types of beta decay, i.e. electron emission, electron capture and positron emission.

THE LONGER THE HALF-LIFE OF A SUBSTANCE THE LESS IS THE RADIOACTIVITY and as such the less dangerous it is.

As a simple analogy, if it takes 14 billion years for half of a house to be burnt, there is no chance of anybody getting hurt. But if it takes only 14 minutes for half of the house to be burnt down, a lot of people will be injured or killed.

Thorium-232 which is found in the Lynas waste has an incredibly long half-life of 14 billion years and as such is much less radioactive than the Potassium-40 whose half-life is only 1.25 billion years.

Radioactivity in Bq (number of atoms decaying in 1 second)

Pure Thorium-232 = 4,080 Bq/gm
Pure Potassium-40 = 254,000 Bq/gm
Naturally Occurring Potassium = 31.825 Bq/gm
Lynas Rare Earth Waste = 6 Bq/gm

It has been estimated that in the worst case scenario, the radiation risk from the Lynas plant is only 0.002 mSv/yr.

In Ramsar, Iran, the naturally occurring radiation is extremely high at 260 mSv/yr. This is 13,000,000% higher than the expected worse case scenario in Kuantan.

And the people in Ramsar, Iran has been found to be healthier and live longer than the rest of the Iranians! There is also no increase in the number of cancer cases.

We are exposed to radiation all our lives. In fact we get 4,400 Bq of radiation from the Potassium-40 with a further 3,000 Bq from Carbon-14 which forms part of our body tissues.

There is no way we can escape completely from radiation. Even outer space is full of radiation. The only way we can escape from all radiation is to leave this universe! or jump into the Kuantan River and be eaten by the crocodiles. Come to think about it, this would not work either as human body has its own radioactivity.

Dato’ Dr Looi Hoong Wah,
Kuantan.

ps. I have absolutely no link whatsoever to the Lynas Corp. or to the present Government and have absolutely nothing to gain whatsoever. I just want the people to know the facts and make up their own minds.

From the blog of NK Khoo
My stand on Lynas, I support it if ….

Lynas rare earth processing plant in Gebeng Kuantan is being sensationalized by opposition political parties and NGOs.

I did not say support or against the Lynas Plant in the past, it’s time to express my stand loud and clear now.

I support Lynas rare earth plant with conditions as stated below,

1. An independent expert panel to monitor and audit the operation and waste managament.

This requirement is to ensure Lynas Management conforms to international safety standards since our people have no confidence against BN government after the Bukit Merah scandal.

2. The plant is not located in my new village. (The same reason I used against furniture factories in my new village)

What is Thorium-232?
The early experimental nuclear reactor also using thorium as its fuel. The technology was abandoned because US military’s main goal was developing nuclear bombs through uranium enrichment in the reactors. Thorium is a safe radioactive material provided you do not inhale or eat it.

Thorium will be the future nuclear fuel. The waste will be a black gold in future if we can ensure proper waste storage.

Is Thorium-232 Hazardous?
http://www.doh.wa.gov/ehp/rp/factsheets/factsheets-htm/fs30th232.htm

The main pathways of exposure are ingestion and inhalation.

Because of its relative insolubility and low specific activity 232Th is not present in biological materials in significant amounts. Thorium was found to be present in the highest concentrations in the pulmonary lymph nodes and lungs, indicating that the principal source of human exposure is inhalation of suspended soil particles.

Risk is a parcel of life
Furniture factories also using certain toxic chemical in the manufacturing processes like Lynas rare earth processing plant.

The Industrial Estate in my new village is running for more than 10 year without any waste processing plant. Untreated liquid and solid toxic wastes from the factories are discharged and flowed into Muar river. Literally, waste hazard from these ill-managed furniture factories is more risky than Lynas plant.

The funny thing is not a single NGO protested against furniture factories located nearby the drinking water source at Muar river upstream.

About 1% Malaysia GDP can be created from Lynas plant when it’s fully operational is not a small and child’s business.

The ultimate loser is Malaysia for chasing out foreign investors due to ill-informed and mis-informed campaigns by certain quarters for the reasons known to them only.

I am expecting a datukship from Pahang BN government for my support to Lynas. :-)

Who is Dr. Looi Hoong Wah?

Dr.(medicine) Looi Hoong Wah is the brother of Dr. (architecture) Looi Hoong Thoong or Uncle Looi, the V-Buster antivirus programmer. Uncle Looi actually is a genius with IQ 180, and only 1 out 3 million population has such high IQ, so Malaysia has 10 geniuses with IQ 180 and above in theory.

MENSA accepts anyone with IQ > 130 as its member, only two percentile population is above IQ 130.

LYNAS: I could keep thorium safely at home

By Datuk Dr Looi Hoong Wah, Kuantan, Pahang

I JUST cannot understand what the big fuss is all about with regard to radioactivity exposure around the Lynas rare earth plant.

Thorium-232 is the only radioactive element associated with rare earth mining and it is regarded as the future green nuclear fuel.

It is present in rocks everywhere and even in its purest form, it radiates only alpha particles.

Alpha particles, which consist of two protons and two neutrons, are nothing more than helium atoms without their electrons.

These alpha particles cannot travel more than a few centimetres and cannot penetrate the human skin.

As such, you can hold a lump of pure thorium-232 in your rubber-gloved hands without any danger.

Thorium-232 does not produce dangerous gamma rays, which have high ionising energy, high frequency and short electromagnetic wavelength. These can pass though the human body and cause radiation damage.

To be frank, I would not mind keeping a few hundred kilogrammes of pure thorium-232 in my house if someone were kind enough to give me such a valuable substance.

In other words, the fear of radioactivity danger from the rare earth processing plant is unfounded and exaggerated.

What we need to worry about is the chemical toxic waste that such plants produce.

But, unfortunately, all industrial plants produce toxic waste and the only way to avoid producing these waste will be for us to remain a poor agricultural country.

 


Thanks to NK Khoo and Dato’ Dr Looi Hoong Wah for sharing the facts.

Posted By: Aeric
Last Edit: 30 Mar 2012 @ 12:34 AM

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Responses to this post » (55 Total)

 
  1. looihw says:

    *
    *
    🙂
    UNSCEAR ADMITS THAT THEY WERE WRONG TO IMPLY THAT THERE IS NO SAFE LEVEL OF RADIATION ! 🙂 🙂 🙂

    There IS a safe level and that is,

    RADIATION DOSES LESS THAN ABOUT 10 rem (100 mSv ) per year ARE SAFE.

    (Note: 100 mSv = 5,OO0,000 % Lynas worst case scenario)

    *
    Have a look at this article recommended by Nick Tsurikov, the International Radiation Safety Expert and Co-author of the IAEA Radiation Safety Report.

    http://www.forbes.com/sites/jamesconca/2013/01/11/like-weve-been-saying-radiation-is-not-a-big-deal/

    Excerpts of Article in Forbes:

    “UNSCEAR (THE UNITED NATIONS SCENTIFIC COMMITTEE ON THE EFFECTS OF ATOMIC RADIATION) HAS FINALLY ADMITTED THAT WE CAN’T USE THE LNT HYPOTHESIS TO PREDICT CANCER FROM LOW DOSES OF RADIATION.

    Now the Japanese people can start eating their own food again and stop being as afraid. Source: United Nations

    A very big report came out last month with very little fanfare.

    IT CONCLUDED WHAT WE IN NUCLEAR SCIENCE HAVE BEEN SAYING FOR DECADES –

    RADIATION DOSES LESS THAN ABOUT 10 rem ( 0.1 Sv ) ARE NO BIG DEAL.

    (Note: 0.1 Sv = 100 mSv or 50,000 times Lynas worst case scenario)

    The linear no-threshold dose hypothesis (LNT) does not apply to doses less than 10 rem (0.1 Sv), which is the region encompassing background levels around the world, and is the region of most importance to nuclear energy, most medical procedures and most areas affected by accidents like Fukushima.

    The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) (UNSCEAR 2012) submitted the report that, among other things, states that uncertainties at low doses are such that UNSCEAR “does not recommend multiplying low doses by large numbers of individuals to estimate numbers of radiation-induced health effects within a population exposed to incremental doses at levels equivalent to or below natural background levels.”

    You know, like everyone’s been doing since Chernobyl. Like everyone’s still doing with Fukushima.

    Finally, the world may come to its senses and not waste time on the things that aren’t hurting us and spend time on the things that are.

    And on the people that are in real need. Like the infrastructure and economic destruction wrought by the tsunami, like cleaning up the actual hot spots around Fukushima, like caring for the tens of thousands of Japanese living in fear of radiation levels so low that the fear itself is the only thing that is hurting them, like seriously preparing to restart their nuclear fleet and listening to the IAEA and the U.S. when we suggest improvements.

    The advice on radiation in this report will clarify what can, and cannot, be said about low dose radiation health effects on individuals and large populations.

    Background doses going from 250 mrem (2.5 mSv) to 350 mrem (3.5 mSv) will not raise cancer rates or have any discernable effects on public health.

    Likewise, background doses going from 250 mrem (2.5 mSv) to 100 mrem (1 mSv) will not decrease cancer rates or effect any other public health issue.

    Note – although most discussions are for acute doses (all at once) the same amount as a chronic dose (metered out over a longer time period like a year) is even less effecting. So 10 rem (0.1 Sv) per year, either as acute or chronic, has no effect, while 10 rem per month would.

    UNSCEAR also found no observable health effects from last year’s nuclear accident in Fukushima. No effects.

    The Japanese people can start eating their own food again, and moving back into areas only lightly contaminated with radiation levels that are similar to background in many areas of the world like Colorado and Brazil.”

    Dato’ Dr Looi Hoong Wah

    http://www.forbes.com/sites/jamesconca/2013/01/11/like-weve-been-saying-radiation-is-not-a-big-deal/

  2. looihw says:

    *
    *
    CHINESE NEW YEAR COMING… TIME TO EAT RAW FISH ?

    THE JAPANESE AND AMERICANS ARE MUCH SMARTER THAN YOU THINK WHEN IT COMES TO EATING RAW SEAFOOD !

    Please read on:

    Please take great care when eating raw unfrozen fresh water fish as this can be very dangerous to your health.

    Fresh water fish and for that matter, all raw meat, contain a lot of dangerous parasites.

    It was recently reported in the journal “PLoS Pathogens” that a chronic infection with a type of flatworm called Opisthorchis viverrini or South East Asian Liver Fluke can cause liver cancer.

    In fact, the International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified Opisthorchis viverrini as a Class One carcinogen.

    If untreated, about 33% of the estimated nine million people infected by this worm from eating raw fresh water fish is expected to develop liver cancer!

    Eating raw fresh water fish is extremely dangerous. Over the years I have seen a fair number of patients infected with another fresh water worm called Gnathostomiasis spinigerum especially after my patients eat raw fish during the Chinese New Year.

    Migration under the skin causes intermittent, migratory, painful itchy swellings (cutaneous larva migrans).

    Patches of swelling appear after the above symptoms clear. These lesions vary in size and can be accompanied by itching, rash and stabbing pain. Swellings may last for 1 to 4 weeks in a given area and then reappear in a different location.

    Initially when the worms migrate to the gallbladder area it may cause so much pain and discomfort that it is mistaken for inflammation of the gallbladder(cholecystitis) and many of the patients have the gallbladder removed because of wrong diagnosis.

    Migration to other tissues (visceral larva migrans), can result in cough, bloody urine, eye involvement, meningitis, encephalitis and hypereosinophilia. Eosinophilic myeloencephalitis may also result from invasion of the central nervous system by the larvae.

    It has been reported that the worm can live in the body for as long as 11 years, and during that time it will be crawling all over the body and if it gets into the brain or eye and die there, it may cause blindness and epilepsy years later.

    And of course, the doctor and the patient will not blame eating raw fish as the cause of the malady because of the long time lapse.

    The Japanese are much smarter as they eat only salt water fish.

    However, this is not very safe either because as high as 40% of sea fish like cod and salmon do carry other types of worms like Anisakis simplex and the 30 feet long fish tapeworm called Diphyllobotrium latum and many other parasites.

    Moreover, the Japanese freeze the fish at below minus 20 degrees Centigrade for many days to kill some of these parasites before eating them.

    Home freezers are not cold enough to kill the parasites. In the USA it is mandatory for fish that is served raw to be frozen to below minus 20 degrees Centigrade for at least 7days.

    To be safe it is best not to eat any fish or other meat raw. Cooking will of course, kill all parasites and render all flesh and meat safe to eat.

    Eating crabs and other types of crustaceans which are raw or poorly cooked are just as dangerous.

    For instance, the nasty lung fluke, Paragonimus westermani is present in as much as 80% of all the crabs in South East Asia.

    Consumption of animals which feed on crustaceans can also transmit the parasite.

    Cases have been reported in Japan where raw boar meat was the source of human infection.

    Food preparation techniques such as pickling and salting do not exterminate the causative agent.

    In a Chinese study eating “drunken crabs” was shown to be particularly risky because the infection rate was 100% when crabs are immersed in wine for 3–5 minutes and fed to cats/dog.

    Lung flukes ( Paragonimus kellicotti) infection is common in crayfish and cases of people infected with this nasty parasite have been reported in the USA, though this is a slightly different type of lung fluke. It was diagnosed in people who had consumed raw crayfish from streams and rivers in Missouri.

    IT IS BEST NOT TO EAT ANY MEAT OR FLESH OR CRUSTACEAN WHEN RAW OR POORLY COOKED……. ANYWHERE IN THE WORLD !

    Dr Looi Hoong Wah
    FAMM, MB., ChB(Manchester), MRCS(England), MRCP(UK), MRCP(London)

    LUNG FLUKES

    http://health.discovery.com/tv-specials/other-videos/monsters-inside-me-lungworms.htm

  3. looihw says:

    *
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    SOMETHING DIFFERENT !

    NOTHING CAN TRAVEL FASTER THAN LIGHT IN AN ABSOLUTE VACUUM BUT:

    PLEASE READ ON

    sqrt = square root

    10 = 3.1623^2

    i = imaginary number = sqrt (-1)

    i ^ 4 = +1

    *****

    E = mc ^2 {(1-v^2/c^2)}^(-1/2)

    If an imaginary particle is travelling at 3.1623 x C,

    E = mc ^2 [{(1-(3.1623c)^2)} / c^2]^(-1/2)

    E = mc ^2 {(1-10)} ^ (-1/2)

    …. = mc ^2 / square root (- 9)

    …. = mc ^2 / 3i

    If we raise E to the power of 4,

    E^4 = (mc ^2)^4 / 81i^4

    Since i^4 = +1,

    E = 1/3 x mc^2 when an imaginary particle is travelling 3.1623 times the speed of light in a vacuum ! ! !

    THIS APPEARS TO MAKE NO SENSE.

    IS THERE ANY GOOD MATHEMATICIAN OUT THERE WHO COULD GIVE A DECENT EXPLANATION ?

    OR TO PUT IT IN ANOTHER WAY, IF A PARTICLE MOVES FASTER THAN THE SPEED OF LIGHT, IT’S ENERGY DECREASES AND IF IT’S SPEED REACHES INFINITY, IT’S ENERGY AND HENCE IT’S MASS BECOMES ZERO !…….. unless it’s energy is compensated by it’s increase in it’s Newtonian Kinetic Energy (which may not work either as the mass becomes zero, the Newtonian kinetic energy will also become zero);

    E = mc^2 + 1/2 x mv^2,

    The only time when matter moves faster than light is during the period of inflation at the time of the Big Bang.

    At this time the total energy and mass of the universe may be small (and not infinitely large) but as the inflation decreases towards the speed of light C, the total energy and hence the total mass may be at it’s maximum at C.

    From then on decreases exponentially to the total energy and mass of today i.e. at rest of E = mc^2.

    Dato’ Dr Looi Hoong Wah.
    FAMM, MB., ChB(Manchester), MRCS(England), MRCP(UK), MRCP(London).

    http://richerramblings.wordpress.com/2012/10/26/problems-with-zero-numberphile/

  4. looihw says:

    SAFETY OF THORIUM-232

    It is safer and cleaner than uranium because its radioactivity is significantly lower:

    Quote Richard Martin, famous journalist with extensive experience in Thorium

    “A CHUNK OF THORIUM IS NO MORE HARMFUL THAN A BAR OF SOAP”.

    You can safely hold metallic Thorium-232 in your hands as it is an alpha emitter and alpha particles cannot penetrate even a piece of paper.

    #####

    2. Thorium-232 is strongly adsorbed to clay. There is no natural way it can get into body. Even the plants and fruits do not contain any Thorium in places with high Thorium in soil.

    The amount of Th-232 in the human body is tiny (estimated to be only 30 micrograms per body i.e. to get 30 gm of Th-232, you need 1 million bodies!

    NICK TSURIKOV, INTERNATIONAL RADIATION SAFETY SPECIALIST

    THORIUM IN “WASTE” IS INSOLUBLE AND CANNOT POISON ANY PLANTS, ANIMALS OR THE ENVIRONMENT – EVEN IN THEORY.

    RADIATION FROM THE PLANT WILL BE UNDETECTABLE OUTSIDE THE BOUNDARIES (of the plant).”

    #####

    3. QUOTE NICK TSURIKOV, INTERNATIONAL RADIATION SAFETY EXPERT WHO IS THE CO-AUTHOR OF IAEA RADIATION SAFETY REPORT:

    “On dust particles – THERE IS NO WAY WHATSOEVER FOR

    DUSTPARTICLES OF AROUND 10 MICRONS TO GET INTO

    THE LUNGS –

    THE STUFF THAT GETS THERE IS 5 MICRONS OR LESS,..

    The vast majority of the (Lynas) concentrate is either 10 MICRONS or above, SO THERE WOULD NOT BE ANY ISSUE HERE.”

    #####

    4. BECAUSE OF THE EXTREME LOW SPECIFIC ACTIVITY OF TH-232, THE AMOUNT OF DECAY PRODUCT IS MINUSCULE e.g.

    Thorium-232 produced from the WLP per year is only about 95 tonnes and as such a 1 year accumulation of Th-232 produces only 0.5098 MICROGRAMS OF RADON-220/HR OR 0.00005172 ML (CC)/HR of Thoron gas at STP.

    At secular equilibrium, the amount of daughter Radon-220 is only 167 femtograms per ton of Lynas WLP i.e.

    0.000000000000167 grams.

    THIS AMOUNT IS NOT ENOUGH TO TICKLE THE BACKSIDE OF A NEWBORN PIGMY BABY CATERPILLAR !

    #####

    5. THE longer the half-life of a substance, the less its radioactivity.

    As an analogy, if it takes 14 billion years for half of a house to be burnt, there is no chance of anybody getting hurt. But if it takes only 14 minutes for half of the house to be burnt down, many will be injured or killed.

    Thorium-232, which is found in the Lynas waste, has an incredibly long half-life of 14 billion years and as such is much less radioactive than the potassium-40 whose half-life is only 1.25 billion years

    #####

    6. LEAD-208 WHICH IS USED IN YOUR CAR BATTERIES HAVE AN EVEN LONGER HALF LIFE OF 19 MILLION BILLION YEARS AND AS SUCH IS REGARDED AS NON-RADIOACTIVE…i.e. it decays extremely slowly and therefore the radioactivity is incredible low!

    So it’s silly and illogical to say that thorium long half life means that it is dangerous.. It means that is very only very weakly radioactive and can even be held in your hands!

    #####

    7. KEROSENE GAS MANTLES USED IN HAWKER’S LAMPS
    THESE GAS MANTLES ARE MADE OF FABRIC SOAKED IN THORIUM-232 AND AFTER THE INITIAL “FIRING” BECOMES ALMOST PURE THORIUM DIOXIDE.

    MILLIONS HAD HELD THESE “DANGEROUS, RADIOACTIVE” THORIUM GAS MANTLES IN THEIR HANDS.

    REMEMBER THORIUM DIOXIDE HAS A SPECIFIC ACTIVITY OF 3,585 Bq/g ! THE “WASTE” FROM LYNAS IS ONLY 6 Bq/g.

    WHY FRIGHTEN OF 6 Bq/g FROM WASTE AND NOT WORRIED ABOUT THE 3,585 Bq/g FROM THEIR KEROSENE LAMP ?

    #####

    8. THE ANNUAL DOSE RATE EXPOSURE

    1. FROM MALAYSIAN CLAY BRICK HOUSE = 0.43 mSv/year
    (215 x Lynas Worst Case Scenario)

    2. SLEEPING IN WOODEN HOUSE = 0.20 mSv/yr
    (100x Lynas worst case)

    3. SLAG BRICK AND GRANITE HOUSE = up to 2.0 mSv/yr
    (1,000x Lynas worst case)

    SO TO ALL ANTI-LYNAS FOLKS, YOU SHOULD PITCH UP A TENT NEXT TO THE LYNAS PLANT AND SEND YOUR ENTIRE FAMILY TO LIVE NEXT TO LYNAS AS THIS IS HUNDREDS OF TIMES LESS RADIOACTIVE THAN LIVING IN YOUR PRESENT WOODEN OR BRICK HOUSES

    CONT.

    #####

    9.

    1. WASTE FROM MALAYSIAN AMANG INDUSTRY > 100 Bq/g

    2. WASTE “SCALE AND SLUDGE” IN OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY

    ________ LIKE IN PETRONAS = 1,000 Bq/g

    3. and ___Lynas WLP only = 6 Bq/g !

    SO WHY NO GREENIES PROTESTS AT THE MORE THAN 10 AMANG
    ( TIN TAILING ) PLANTS AND AT PETRONAS ?

    #####

    10 Nick Tsurikov, Radiation Safety Expert ” THE MAJORITY OF THIS LYNAS “WASTE” WILL HAVE ONLY HALF THE THORIUM THAN IN NORMAL MALAYSIAN SOIL.

    Lynas residues are half as radioactive as the sand the kids all over Malaysia play in the kindergartens

    If you do look through the Lynas RIA together with UN (not IAEA) reports –

    you will clearly see that two most ‘voluminous’ residues from LAMP will have less than 12 parts per million of thorium –

    and the average MALAYSIAN SOIL – 20 ppm OF THORIUM.

    #####

    11. IN MOST OF THE ADVANCED COUNTRIES LIKE THE USA, CANADA AND AUSTRALIA WHERE THERE ARE NO HALF BAKED SELF STYLED SCIENTISTS, ANY MATERIAL THAT HAS AN ACTIVITY OF LESS THAN 10 Bq/g is regarded as non-radioactive for transport and do not require any special permission.

    LYNAS ORE = ONLY 6 Bq/g AND THEREFORE REQUIRES NO SPECIAL PERMISSION IN MOST OF THE DEVELOPED COUNTRIES.

    #####

    12. THE MOST BIOLOGICALLY DAMAGING FORMS OF GAMMA RAYS OCCUR IN THE GAMMA RAY WINDOW OF BETWEEN 3 MeV AND 10 MeV.

    Those below 3.0 MeV are NOT very harmful. They have poor penetrating power and do not deposit much energy.

    Those higher energy gamma rays of greater than 10 MeV are
    NOT very harmful because the body is relatively transparent to them.

    THE AVERAGE ENERGY OF THE MOST ABUNDANT EMISSION OF Th-232 IS ONLY 0.059 MeV.

    #####

    13. UNSCEAR ADMIT THAT THEY WERE WRONG TO IMPLY THAT THERE IS NO SAFE LEVEL OF RADIATION !

    There IS a safe level !

    UNSCEAR (THE UNITED NATIONS SCENTIFIC COMMITTEE ON THE EFFECTS OF ATOMIC RADIATION) HAS FINALLY ADMITTED THAT RADIATION DOSES LESS THAN ABOUT 10 rem (100 mSv ) per year ARE SAFE.

    (Note: 100 mSv = 5,000,000 % Lynas worst case scenario)

    #####

    14. RADIATION EXPOSURE OF 100 mSv/yr IS SAFE: Prof WADE ALLISON

    Nick Tsurikov, International Radiation Safety Expert:

    “EXPERTS INCLUDING Professor WADE ALLISON OF OXFORD UNIVERSITY ARGUE THAT THE DOSE LIMIT CAN SAFELY BE RAISED TO 100 mSv, based on current health statistics.”

    (100 mSv/yr = 50,000 times or 5,000,000% higher than Lynas worst case scenario)

    #####

    15. SLEEPING NEXT TO SOMEONE for 8 hrs/day
    (e.g. your wife or husband) = 0.02 mSv (UNSCEAR)
    (10x Lynas worst case)

    SO DON’T SLEEP WITH YOUR WIFE OR HUSBAND since this is like sleeping next to 10 Lynas plants!

    Dose in worst case scenario for Lynas plant = 0.002 mSv/yr

    Malaysian Monazite Ore in Tin Tailings or Amang = 284 Bq/g or 69,608 ppm

    Lynas ore and Lynas WLP “waste” ~ 6 Bq/g or < 1,600 ppm

    #####

    16. THE FINISHED PROCESSED RARE EARTH PRODUCT EMITS ONLY 0.156 mSv/yr ( A TARMAC ROAD EMITS 2.4 TO 2.6 mSv/yr ! ) – so a fraction of what people in everyday life naturally experience.

    The radiation from a tarmac road comes from Thorium-232, Uranium-238, Potassium-40, Radium and other trace radionuclides in the Tar and the Granite stones.

    #####

    17. When the mother radionuclide has an extremely long half life and the daughters have very short half life, there is very little accumulation of the short half life daughters.

    The concentration of the daughter radionuclides is negligible e.g. there is only 1 atom of Radium 224 for every 1.4 trillion atoms of Thorium-232 at equilibrium.

    CONT.

    #####

    18. As far as radon gas is concerned, it must be remembered that Radon-220 from the decay chain of Thorium-232 has a very short half life of only 55 seconds!

    As such only a tiny amount of Radon-220 (a.k.a. Thoron) within a few centimetres of the surface of a huge pile of waste will be able to live long enough to escape from the pile and see the light of day!

    #####

    19. A lot of people have mistaken Radon-220 from Thorium-232 decay series with the more notorious Radon-222 which has a much longer half life of 3.8 days. Radon-222 comes from Uranium-238 decay series.

    Because of its much longer half life, Radon-222 can and do accumulate in the cellars and poorly ventilated areas of domestic dwellings. Radon-222 is the gas that has been linked to lung cancers in especially non-smokers.

    #####

    20. Since the average absorbed Beta energy of K-40 decay is 499 keV and the average absorbed Gamma energy is 156 keV,

    THE INTERNAL DOSAGE from K-40 ~ 0.24 mSv/yr:
    (120x Lynas worst case scenario)

    So why complain about radiation from Lynas when there is the equivalent of 120 Lynas plants producing radiation already inside your body in the form of Potassium-40 !

    #####

    21. AS STATED BY MORMAN FREDERICK MOORE, THE AUSTRALIAN MINISTER FOR MINES AND PETROLEUM, IF LYNAS HAVE CHOSEN TO OPERATE IN WESTERN AUSTRALIA, IT WOULD BE WELCOMED WITH OPEN ARMS !

    1. Alkane has decided to build a multi-billion dollar rare earth plant in the outskirts of Sydney.

    2. Arafura is building a huge Rare Earth Processing Plant costing over A$1 Billion in Whyalla in South Australia.

    #####

    22. Since the average absorbed Beta energy of K-40 decay is 499 keV and the average absorbed Gamma energy is 156 keV,

    THE INTERNAL DOSAGE from K-40 ~ 0.24 mSv/yr:
    (120x Lynas worst case scenario)

    So why complain about radiation from Lynas when there is the equivalent of 120 Lynas plants producing radiation already inside your body in the form of Potassium-40 !

    ####

    23. There is no natural way for Metallic Thorium or insoluble Thorium compounds or even soluble salts when adsorbed with clay, to enter the body in any significant amount and as Nick Tsurikov, International Radiation Safety Expert and Co-author of IAEA Radiation Safety Report says

    "THORIUM IN 'WASTE' IS INSOLUBLE AND CANNOT POISON ANY PLANTS, ANIMALS OR THE ENVIRONMENT – EVEN IN THEORY." Unquote.

    There has not been a single death or injury that has been definitely and conclusively proven beyond any scientific doubt from the accidental inhalation or ingestion of Thorium-232 !

    Compare this with death caused by Water i.e. from drowning… 388,000 drowning deaths in 2004 alone (WHO).

    ####

    24. Metallic Thorium or it's insoluble compounds are chemically innocuous and inert especially when adsorbed by clay.

    Soluble form in the absence of clay absorption = 0.02 to 0.05%.
    With clay, much much less.

    Studies show that a small number out of the 4 million patients who were given this massive dose of 1 or 2 vials (containing 5.58g to 11.7g of thorium) of Thorotrast, developed cancer especially of the liver 20 to 30 years later in their old age.

    Even if we ignore the incredibly strong adsorption to clay, in order to get 5.58g of thorium-232 (equivalent to 1 vial of Thorotrast), we have to swallow an incredible 17,000kg or 17 tonnes of Lynas waste!

    Even with 11.7 g of Th-232 given parenterally, no acute toxicity noted.

    ####

    25. Thorium-232 is not a Carcinogen (cancer causing agent) if Inhaled or Ingested according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC.

    Thorium-232 is considered to be a carcinogen only IF ADMINISTERED INTRAVENOUSLY AS A COLLOIDAL DISPERSION OF THORIUM-232 DIOXIDE.

    Even this may not be true as the carcinogenic effects of the massive dose of Xray from those antique Xray machines (about 1,000 mSv per fluoroscopy and some of the 4 million patients may have had more than one fluoroscopy done in their lifetime) was not taken in consideration when IARC came to the conclusion that Th-232 given parenterally is a carcinogen.

    Dato' Dr Looi

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